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bio.truestory That is true, even when nobody has yet succeeded in xat essay writing being somebody else. Albert Einstein, 1947. Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, the first child of the Jewish couple Hermann and Pauline Einstein, ne Koch. Words Middle Essays! In June 1880 the family moved to Munich where Hermann Einstein and his brother Jakob founded the electrical engineering company Einstein Cie. Xat Essay! Albert Einstein's sister Maria, called Maja, was born on rise wall essay November 18, 1881. Einstein's childhood was a normal one, except that to his family's irritation, he learnt to speak at a late age.
Beginning in xat essay preparation 1884 he received private education in order to get prepared for school. 1885 he started learning to transition words school essays, play violin. Beginning in 1885 he received his primary education at a Catholic school in Munich (Petersschule); in 1888 he changed over to the Luitpold-Gymnasium, also in Munich. However, as this education was not to xat essay, his liking and, in addition, he did not get along with his form-master he left this school in 1894 without a degree and joined his family in Italy where they had settled meanwhile. In order to be admitted to study at wall essay, the Eidgenoessische Polytechnische Schule (later renamed ETH) in Zurich, Einstein took his entrance examination in October 1895. However, some of his results were insufficient and, following the advice of the rector, he attended the Kantonsschule in the town of Aarau in order to improve his knowledge. In early October 1896 he received his school-leaving certificate and shortly thereafter enrolled at xat essay preparation, the Eidgenoessische Polytechnische Schule with the goal of of my soldier essay becoming a teacher in Mathematics and Physics.
Einstein, being an average student, finished his studies with a diploma degree in July 1900. He then applied, without success, for assistantships at the Polytechnische Schule and other universities. Meanwhile he had abandoned the German citizenship and formally applied for xat essay writing the Swiss one which he was granted on February 21, 1901. 1 Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich, ca. 1905. Search for employment continued. Between May 1901 and January 1902 he was teacher in Winterthur and Schaffhausen. Afterwards he moved to the Swiss capital Bern. Justice Essays! In order to make his living, he gave private lessons in mathematics and physics.
At this time also the Bernese Akademie Olympia was founded by Albert Einstein, Maurice Solovine and Conrad Habicht. During meetings in xat essay the evening scientific and philosophical questions were discussed. Einstein himself noted that this academy was beneficial for his career and summer soldier essay topics, even when he already lived in xat essay the US, he remained a loyal member. In January 1902 Lieserl, daughter of Einstein and Mileva Maric, a former fellow-student, was born in Hungary. That Einstein had an illegitimate child has been only learned a few years ago when private letters mentioning this child were published. Nothing is known about the life of Einstein's daughter; probably she was released to become adopted.
At the end of 1902 Einstein's father died in Milan. On January 6, 1903 he married Mileva Maric - against the wills of rise and fall both families. Xat Essay! In May 1904 Einstein's first son, Hans Albert, was born and in social justice essays July 1910 his second son, Eduard. Through mediation of preparation a former fellow-student, Marcel Grossmann, in December 1901 Einstein applied for a position at words school, the Bernese patent-office which he was granted, initially for a time of probation only. Beginning on June 23, 1902 he became technical expert, third class, at this office. Despite of the writing work associated with this position he found time for further research in theoretical physics. Eine neue Bestimmung der Molekldimensionen A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions Dedication Meinem Freunde Herrn Dr. Marcel Grossmann Bern, 30. April 1905. Published by: Buchdruckerei K. J. Wyss, Bern (1906) Slightly revised version published in essay on my Annalen der Physik , Band 19 (1906), page 289 - 305.
2 Cover - Einstein's Inaugural - Dissertation. In April 1905 Einstein submitted his doctoral thesis A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions to the university in writing Zurich which was accepted in July. During this same year he published four pioneering papers in the scientific magazine Annalen der Physik which revolutionized physics around the turn of the century. Three of the essay easter vacation papers will be briefly mentioned here: In the first article On A Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light Einstein proposed that electromagnetic radiation must consist of quantums or photons. Even though this theory is capable of explaining - among other things - the photoelectric effect it was at first rejected by physicists, namely by the pioneer of modern physics, Max Planck, later, however, confirmed by him and adopted. This work became the foundation of a quantum theory and for this in particular Einstein received the Nobel Prize for writing preparation the year 1921. The paper On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies delineates the principles of attenuation special relativity which deals with questions of objects as part of different coordination systems moving with constant speed relative to each other. It resulted in writing preparation a new interpretation of the conception of space and time and relies on the constancy of the speed of light and the principle of relativity which postulates that it is impossible to social, determine motions in xat essay writing preparation an absolute way. Transition Words School! Shortly thereafter the paper Does the preparation Inertia of a Body Depend upon its Energy Content? was published. It contains the famous equation E = m · c 2 stating the equivalence of mass and energy. Through these publications Einstein attracted the attention of the scientific community.
At the end of 1906 he published the paper Planck's Theory of Radiation and the Theory of vacation Specific Heat which can be regarded as being the first publication on the quantum theory of the solid state. Einstein's famous equation: In April 1906 Einstein was promoted to technical expert, second class, at the patent-office in Bern. His Habilitation (in the German-speaking countries a thesis to be submitted in order to be eligible for a position at xat essay, the professorial level at social justice essays, the university) things did not go so well. His first application was turned down in 1907 by the university of xat essay Bern. In early 1908, however, he was successful and at the end of the middle essays same year he gave his first lecture. Einstein had decided that he wanted to devote his time entirely to science; hence, he gave up his position at xat essay, the patent-office in October 1909 and in the same month he started to work as Ausserordentlicher Professor (adjunct professor) of thesis phd noise theoretical physics at the university of Zurich. In 1911 Einstein was offered a chair at the German university in Prague which he took on. However, already one year thereafter he returned to Switzerland after having been offered a professorial position at the ETH. Impressed by Einstein's achievements, Max Planck and the physical chemist Walther Nernst attempted to xat essay preparation, lure the young Einstein to social justice the fabian, Berlin, then stronghold of xat essay writing natural sciences.
They wanted to make him a member of the Prussian Academy of social the fabian essays Sciences, offer him a professorial position without teaching responsibilities at xat essay, Berlin university and make him the head of the - still to be founded - Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute of Physics. For Einstein this offer was so tempting that he accepted and in April 1914 moved to Berlin with his family. Of My Soldier Topics! On July 2nd, 1914, he gave his inaugural lecture at preparation, the Prussian Academy. Contrary to his professional advance, Einstein's marriage did not go well. In consequence, already in July 1914 his wife and children returned to Zurich. As Einstein was not willing to keep up his marriage with Mileva they became divorced in summer of my german soldier essay topics February 1919. From 1917 on Einstein became sick, suffering from various diseases resulting in a general weakness which lasted until 1920. Xat Essay Writing Preparation! Throughout this time he was under the loving care of his cousin Elsa Loewenthal. They fell in social justice love with each other and on June 2nd, 1919, he married Elsa who had already two daughters, Ilse and Margot, from her first marriage.
The couple then moved to writing preparation, Haberlandstrasse 5 in Berlin. Apart from all his work Einstein still found time for playing music. Since his youth he played the violin and middle, later he frequently was seen on the street carrying his violin case. He was an admirer of writing preparation Bach and Mozart and, through continuous practice, he became a good violinist. Social Justice The Fabian! Apart from his love for music he was a devoted sailor. Doing this just for preparation fun, here did he find the time to think about problems of physics. From 1909 to 1916 Albert Einstein worked on a generalization of his Special Theory of Relativity. The results of his efforts were published in March 1916 in on my easter vacation the paper The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity. This theory investigates coordination systems which experience acceleration relative to each other and also the influence of gravitational fields to time and space.
Whereas the Special Theory of Relativity was still intelligible to the layman, this did not apply to xat essay, the General Theory of thesis attenuation Relativity. Moreover, due to the relatively small relativistic effects, this theory was difficult to verify experimentally. Einstein - or his General Theory of Relativity - predicted the perihelion motion of mercury, the gravitational red shift as well as the deflection of preparation light in a gravitational field. He was convinced that light deflection by the gravitational field of the xat essay writing preparation sun could be observed during a total solar eclipse. After several failed observations of preparation total solar eclipses proof came in 1919: On May 29 of that year the English astronomer Arthur Stanley Eddington confirmed Einstein's prediction of light deflection when he observed a total solar eclipse on and fall of berlin wall the volcanic island of Principe in the Gulf of writing preparation Guinea in western Africa. A second expedition, led by Andrew Crommelin, observed this eclipse in Sobral, Brazil. On September 22, 1919 Einstein received a telegram from the Dutch physician and Nobel laureate Hendrik Antoon Lorentz. It said: “Eddington found star displacement at thesis, rim of sun preliminary measurements between nine-tenth of a second and twice that value.
A few days later, on September 27, Albert Einstein wrote a postcard to his mother: … Joyous news today. H. A. Preparation! Lorentz telegraphed that the thesis phd noise English expeditions have actually measured the deflection of starlight from the sun. During a total solar eclipse the sun is completely covered by the moon passing between the sun and Earth. Due to the relatively stringent conditions for the constellation of the moon between Earth and the sun, a total solar eclipse is very rare. (German Aerospace Center DLR) 5 Total solar eclipse. Xat Essay! The official result of these expeditions was announced on November 6, 1919 during a joint meeting of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society in London. Thereby Einstein had become the summer of my soldier essay successor of the xat essay writing preparation great Isaac Newton. Joseph John Thomson, president of the Royal Society, stated solemnly This is the most important result related to the theory of gravitation since the days of Newton. This result is among the greatest achievements of human thinking. Essay Vacation! This confirmation of the predictions made by the General Theory of Relativity made Einstein world-famous and not only among scientists.
The perihelion motion of mercury and the gravitational red shift were also gloriously confirmed experimentally. In Lenard’s four-volume work of 1936/37 Deutsche Physik (German Physics), written on the basis of classical physics of the xat essay writing 19 th century and words middle school, with the accentuation on xat essay experimental physics, the theoretical i.e. Thesis Phd Noise Attenuation! Jewish physics was almost completely rejected. Philipp Lenard: Deutsche Physik (German Physics) (Introduction and writing, mechanics) Volume 2: Akustik und Wrmelehre. ( Acoustics and thermodynamics) Volume 3: Optik, Elektrostatik und Anfnge der Elektrodynamik. (Optics, electrostatics and beginnings of transition middle essays electrodynamics) Volume 4: Magnetismus, Elektrodynamik und Anfnge von Weiterem. ( Magnetism, electrodynamics and beginnings of further physics ) 6 Cover Volume 2, Deutsche Physik (German Physics), Philipp Lenard, 1936/1937. In February 1920 Einstein's mother died in Berlin. Between 1921 and xat essay writing, 1923 he travelled, among others, to the US, Britain, France, Japan and Palestine. Words! Since that time he began commenting on political issues more and more frequently, based on a pacifist point of preparation view. In 1922 Einstein became member of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation which he left one year later even though he supported the aims of the League of Nations.
With a revived belief in the ideals of this organisation Einstein re-joined the commission in May 1924. Opposed to any kind of violence Einstein supported pacifist movements whenever he had the chance. In addition, he supported the cause of the Zionists. He spoke up for the Hebrew University to be founded in social Jerusalem to which he later also bequeathed his entire written legacy. In November 1952 Einstein even received the offer to become President of Israel which, however, he turned down. As the consequence of writing overworking, in 1928 Einstein developed a heart disease which took him almost a year to recover from. In 1929 after his 50th birthday he built a summer house in essay on my the municipality of Caputh where he lived with his family each year between spring and late autumn until the December of 1932. From 1920 onwards Einstein was working towards a unified field theory which, apart from gravitation, was also to include electrodynamics.
This research would last until his death and xat essay, remained unsuccessful. During the first decade of work towards the unified field theory he was still being supported by colleagues which, however, after having lost their faith in being able to resolve this mystery, turned to other problems such as the theory of the new microcosm or quantum mechanics. Niels Bohr, founder of the so-called Copenhagen School, Max Born, and essay easter, - from the then young generation - Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli among others became the physicists to develop quantum mechanics. Preparation! Einstein thus became a single fighter and gradually scientifically isolated which, however, did not seem to bother him much. His way into isolation was magnified as Einstein was unable to accept quantum mechanics and constantly exercised his criticism. In particular, he was opposed to the probabilities which were applied in this theory. In this context we have to of berlin wall, understand his well-known quotation God does not throw the dice. However, as far as quantum mechanics is concerned, Einstein was wrong because at present this theory is as widely applied in physics as are Einstein's theories of relativity. When Einstein and his wife left Caputh in December 1932 to hold a third series of lectures in writing the US the political situation in Germany had drastically changed for thesis phd noise the worse.
In the 1932 elections the Nazis had become the strongest political party and in xat essay writing January 1933 Hitler seized power. As the consequence of the crimes of the Nazis during the Third Reich Einstein never again set his foot on German soil. In March 1933 he resigned from the Prussian Academy of thesis phd noise Sciences and cut off all contacts with any German institution he ever had dealt with. Albert Einstein found a new home in the US. Writing! From November 1933 on he worked at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, New Jersey, where in thesis phd noise 1935 he and his wife bought a house in 112, Mercer Street.
In December 1936 Einstein's wife Elsa died. In 1939 his sister Maja moved to his house where she stayed until her death in 1951. 7 Albert Einstein in Princeton, ca. 1950. Since 1939 Europe was on war. Horrified by the imagination that scientists in Germany were working on an atomic bomb, on August 2, 1939 Einstein signed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt in order to draw his attention to xat essay, the atomic danger. In this letter he pointed the President to the military possibilities of thesis attenuation atomic energy and xat essay, encouraged him to intensity US research into nuclear techniques. This remained his only participation in connection with the atomic bomb.
On October 1, 1940 Einstein was sworn in as American citizen, keeping however also his Swiss citizenship. In a public letter to the United Nations in 1946 Einstein proposed to install a world government in which he saw the on my easter vacation only chance for a durable peace. In the xat essay following years he intensified these endeavours. In August 1948 Einstein's first wife, Mileva Maric, died in Zurich. He himself had to undergo abdominal surgery in the same year. In March 1950 he declared his will, making his secretary Helen Dukas and transition middle, Dr. Otto Nathan jointly to his executors. On April 15, 1955 Einstein was transported to hospital in Princeton because he had severe pain. The diagnosis was a ruptured aneurysm of his abdominal aorta. As a consequence of this illness Albert Einstein died at the age of 76 at xat essay writing preparation, 1:15 a.m. on April 18, 1955.
Following his wish his remains were cremated the attenuation same day and preparation, the ashes were about two weeks later put down at an unknown place. Science had lost one of his foremost thinkers and the world had lost a fighter for peace and freedom. Copyright © 2000-2014 Hans-Josef Kpper. All rights reserved. | Imprint.
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Management Time: Who’s Got the Monkey? Editor’s Note: This article was originally published in the November–December 1974 issue of HBR and has been one of the publication’s two best-selling reprints ever. For its reissue as a Classic, the Harvard Business Review asked Stephen R. Covey to provide a commentary. Why is it that managers are typically running out of xat essay writing, time while their subordinates are typically running out of work? Here we shall explore the meaning of management time as it relates to the interaction between managers and their bosses, their peers, and their subordinates. Specifically, we shall deal with three kinds of management time: Boss-imposed time —used to accomplish those activities that the boss requires and that the manager cannot disregard without direct and swift penalty.
System-imposed time —used to thesis attenuation, accommodate requests from xat essay preparation peers for active support. Neglecting these requests will also result in penalties, though not always as direct or swift. Self-imposed time —used to school, do those things that the xat essay preparation manager originates or agrees to do. A certain portion of this kind of time, however, will be taken by subordinates and is called subordinate-imposed time . The remaining portion will be the manager’s own and is called discretionary time . On My. Self-imposed time is not subject to penalty since neither the boss nor the system can discipline the manager for not doing what they didn’t know he had intended to writing, do in the first place. To accommodate those demands, managers need to control the timing and the content of what they do. Since what their bosses and transition middle school essays, the system impose on them are subject to penalty, managers cannot tamper with those requirements. Writing Preparation. Thus their self-imposed time becomes their major area of concern. Managers should try to increase the discretionary component of rise and fall of berlin, their self-imposed time by minimizing or doing away with the subordinate component. Xat Essay Writing. They will then use the added increment to get better control over their boss-imposed and system-imposed activities. Most managers spend much more time dealing with subordinates’ problems than they even faintly realize.
Hence we shall use the monkey-on-the-back metaphor to examine how subordinate-imposed time comes into being and what the justice the fabian essays superior can do about preparation it. Let us imagine that a manager is walking down the hall and that he notices one of his subordinates, Jones, coming his way. When the two meet, Jones greets the manager with, “Good morning. By the way, we’ve got a problem. You see….” As Jones continues, the manager recognizes in this problem the german soldier topics two characteristics common to all the problems his subordinates gratuitously bring to his attention. Namely, the writing preparation manager knows (a) enough to get involved, but (b) not enough to make the on-the-spot decision expected of him.
Eventually, the manager says, “So glad you brought this up. I’m in a rush right now. Meanwhile, let me think about it, and thesis phd noise attenuation, I’ll let you know.” Then he and Jones part company. Let us analyze what just happened. Xat Essay Writing Preparation. Before the two of rise of berlin wall, them met, on whose back was the “monkey”? The subordinate’s. After they parted, on whose back was it? The manager’s.
Subordinate-imposed time begins the moment a monkey successfully leaps from the back of a subordinate to the back of his or her superior and does not end until the monkey is returned to its proper owner for care and feeding. In accepting the monkey, the manager has voluntarily assumed a position subordinate to xat essay writing, his subordinate. Xat Essay. That is, he has allowed Jones to preparation, make him her subordinate by doing two things a subordinate is generally expected to do for a boss—the manager has accepted a responsibility from thesis phd noise his subordinate, and the manager has promised her a progress report. The subordinate, to make sure the manager does not miss this point, will later stick her head in xat essay writing, the manager’s office and cheerily query, “How’s it coming?” (This is called supervision.) Or let us imagine in concluding a conference with Johnson, another subordinate, the manager’s parting words are, “Fine. Send me a memo on that.” Let us analyze this one. The monkey is now on the subordinate’s back because the next move is his, but it is poised for xat essay writing, a leap.
Watch that monkey. Johnson dutifully writes the requested memo and drops it in his out-basket. Shortly thereafter, the manager plucks it from his in-basket and reads it. Whose move is it now? The manager’s. If he does not make that move soon, he will get a follow-up memo from the subordinate. (This is another form of supervision.) The longer the manager delays, the more frustrated the writing subordinate will become (he’ll be spinning his wheels) and the more guilty the manager will feel (his backlog of subordinate-imposed time will be mounting). Or suppose once again that at a meeting with a third subordinate, Smith, the manager agrees to provide all the necessary backing for a public relations proposal he has just asked Smith to summer of my german soldier essay, develop. The manager’s parting words to her are, “Just let me know how I can help.” Now let us analyze this.
Again the monkey is initially on preparation, the subordinate’s back. But for how long? Smith realizes that she cannot let the transition manager “know” until her proposal has the manager’s approval. Xat Essay. And from experience, she also realizes that her proposal will likely be sitting in rise of berlin wall, the manager’s briefcase for preparation, weeks before he eventually gets to it. Who’s really got the thesis attenuation monkey? Who will be checking up on writing preparation, whom? Wheel spinning and bottlenecking are well on their way again. A fourth subordinate, Reed, has just been transferred from another part of the summer of my german soldier topics company so that he can launch and eventually manage a newly created business venture.
The manager has said they should get together soon to hammer out writing, a set of objectives for the new job, adding, “I will draw up an initial draft for discussion with you.” Let us analyze this one, too. The subordinate has the new job (by formal assignment) and the full responsibility (by formal delegation), but the manager has the next move. Until he makes it, he will have the monkey, and the subordinate will be immobilized. Why does all of this happen? Because in each instance the manager and the subordinate assume at xat essay writing preparation the outset, wittingly or unwittingly, that the matter under consideration is writing preparation, a joint problem. The monkey in each case begins its career astride both their backs.
All it has to do is move the wrong leg, and—presto!—the subordinate deftly disappears. Writing Preparation. The manager is thus left with another acquisition for his menagerie. Of course, monkeys can be trained not to move the wrong leg. But it is easier to prevent them from straddling backs in writing preparation, the first place. Let us suppose that these same four subordinates are so thoughtful and considerate of their superior’s time that they take pains to transition words school, allow no more than three monkeys to leap from preparation each of their backs to his in any one day. In a five-day week, the manager will have picked up 60 screaming monkeys—far too many to do anything about them individually. So he spends his subordinate-imposed time juggling his “priorities.” Late Friday afternoon, the manager is in his office with the phd noise door closed for privacy so he can contemplate the situation, while his subordinates are waiting outside to get their last chance before the weekend to remind him that he will have to “fish or cut bait.” Imagine what they are saying to one another about the manager as they wait: “What a bottleneck. He just can’t make up his mind. How anyone ever got that high up in our company without being able to make a decision we’ll never know.”
HBR’s 10 Must Reads For New Managers. Worst of all, the reason the manager cannot make any of these “next moves” is that his time is almost entirely eaten up by meeting his own boss-imposed and system-imposed requirements. To control those tasks, he needs discretionary time that is in turn denied him when he is preoccupied with all these monkeys. The manager is caught in a vicious circle. But time is a-wasting (an understatement).
The manager calls his secretary on the intercom and instructs her to tell his subordinates that he won’t be able to see them until Monday morning. At 7 pm, he drives home, intending with firm resolve to return to the office tomorrow to get caught up over the weekend. He returns bright and early the writing preparation next day only to see, on the nearest green of the phd noise attenuation golf course across from his office window, a foursome. Guess who? That does it. He now knows who is really working for whom. Moreover, he now sees that if he actually accomplishes during this weekend what he came to accomplish, his subordinates’ morale will go up so sharply that they will each raise the limit on the number of writing, monkeys they will let jump from xat essay writing their backs to his. Preparation. In short, he now sees, with the clarity of essay easter, a revelation on a mountaintop, that the more he gets caught up, the more he will fall behind.
The manager can now see, with the xat essay preparation clarity of a revelation on a mountaintop, that the more he gets caught up, the more he will fall behind. He leaves the office with the speed of a person running away from a plague. Transition Words Middle School. His plan? To get caught up on something else he hasn’t had time for in years: a weekend with his family. (This is xat essay writing preparation, one of the many varieties of discretionary time.) Sunday night he enjoys ten hours of sweet, untroubled slumber, because he has clear-cut plans for Monday.
He is going to get rid of his subordinate-imposed time. In exchange, he will get an rise and fall wall essay equal amount of discretionary time, part of which he will spend with his subordinates to xat essay writing preparation, make sure that they learn the difficult but rewarding managerial art called “The Care and Feeding of writing preparation, Monkeys.” The manager will also have plenty of discretionary time left over for getting control of the timing and the content not only of his boss-imposed time but also of his system-imposed time. It may take months, but compared with the xat essay way things have been, the rewards will be enormous. His ultimate objective is to manage his time. The manager returns to the office Monday morning just late enough so that his four subordinates have collected outside his office waiting to see him about their monkeys. He calls them in topics, one by writing preparation, one.
The purpose of words school, each interview is to preparation, take a monkey, place it on the desk between them, and figure out transition school, together how the xat essay next move might conceivably be the thesis phd noise subordinate’s. For certain monkeys, that will take some doing. The subordinate’s next move may be so elusive that the manager may decide—just for now—merely to let the monkey sleep on the subordinate’s back overnight and have him or her return with it at writing an appointed time the next morning to continue the joint quest for a more substantive move by the subordinate. (Monkeys sleep just as soundly overnight on subordinates’ backs as they do on superiors’.) As each subordinate leaves the essays office, the manager is xat essay, rewarded by the sight of rise and fall, a monkey leaving his office on the subordinate’s back. For the next 24 hours, the subordinate will not be waiting for the manager; instead, the manager will be waiting for the subordinate. Later, as if to remind himself that there is no law against writing preparation his engaging in a constructive exercise in the interim, the manager strolls by the subordinate’s office, sticks his head in the door, and cheerily asks, “How’s it coming?” (The time consumed in doing this is thesis, discretionary for the manager and boss imposed for the subordinate.) In accepting the monkey, the manager has voluntarily assumed a position subordinate to his subordinate. When the subordinate (with the monkey on his or her back) and the manager meet at the appointed hour the next day, the writing manager explains the ground rules in words to this effect: “At no time while I am helping you with this or any other problem will your problem become my problem. The instant your problem becomes mine, you no longer have a problem.
I cannot help a person who hasn’t got a problem. “When this meeting is over, the problem will leave this office exactly the way it came in—on your back. You may ask my help at any appointed time, and we will make a joint determination of summer german essay, what the next move will be and writing, which of us will make it. “In those rare instances where the next move turns out to essay on my vacation, be mine, you and I will determine it together. I will not make any move alone.” The manager follows this same line of thought with each subordinate until about writing preparation 11 am , when he realizes that he doesn’t have to close his door. Summer Topics. His monkeys are gone. They will return—but by appointment only. His calendar will assure this.
What we have been driving at in this monkey-on-the-back analogy is that managers can transfer initiative back to their subordinates and keep it there. We have tried to highlight a truism as obvious as it is subtle: namely, before developing initiative in xat essay writing, subordinates, the manager must see to it that they have the initiative. Once the manager takes it back, he will no longer have it and he can kiss his discretionary time good-bye. It will all revert to subordinate-imposed time. Nor can the of berlin wall manager and the subordinate effectively have the same initiative at the same time. Writing Preparation. The opener, “Boss, we’ve got a problem,” implies this duality and represents, as noted earlier, a monkey astride two backs, which is a very bad way to start a monkey on its career. Let us, therefore, take a few moments to examine what we call “The Anatomy of summer of my german, Managerial Initiative.” HBR’s 10 Must Reads on Managing Yourself.
There are five degrees of initiative that the manager can exercise in relation to xat essay writing, the boss and to the system: 1. wait until told (lowest initiative); 2. ask what to do; 3. recommend, then take resulting action; 4. act, but advise at once; 5. and act on transition middle, own, then routinely report (highest initiative). Clearly, the manager should be professional enough not to indulge in writing, initiatives 1 and 2 in relation either to the boss or to summer of my essay, the system.
A manager who uses initiative 1 has no control over either the timing or the content of xat essay preparation, boss-imposed or system-imposed time and thereby forfeits any right to social justice essays, complain about what he or she is told to do or when. Writing Preparation. The manager who uses initiative 2 has control over the timing but not over the content. Initiatives 3, 4, and 5 leave the manager in control of both, with the greatest amount of control being exercised at essay on my easter level 5. In relation to subordinates, the manager’s job is twofold. First, to outlaw the use of initiatives 1 and 2, thus giving subordinates no choice but to learn and master “Completed Staff Work.” Second, to writing preparation, see that for each problem leaving his or her office there is an agreed-upon level of initiative assigned to it, in addition to an agreed-upon time and place for the next manager-subordinate conference.
The latter should be duly noted on xat essay writing preparation, the manager’s calendar. To further clarify our analogy between the monkey on the back and the processes of assigning and controlling, we shall refer briefly to the manager’s appointment schedule, which calls for writing, five hard-and-fast rules governing the “Care and Feeding of Monkeys.” (Violation of these rules will cost discretionary time.) Monkeys should be fed or shot. Otherwise, they will starve to xat essay preparation, death, and preparation, the manager will waste valuable time on postmortems or attempted resurrections. The monkey population should be kept below the maximum number the manager has time to feed. Subordinates will find time to summer of my german essay, work as many monkeys as he or she finds time to feed, but no more. It shouldn’t take more than five to 15 minutes to feed a properly maintained monkey. Monkeys should be fed by appointment only. Writing. The manager should not have to hunt down starving monkeys and summer of my german, feed them on a catch-as-catch-can basis.
Monkeys should be fed face-to-face or by telephone, but never by mail. Writing Preparation. (Remember—with mail, the next move will be the manager’s.) Documentation may add to the feeding process, but it cannot take the phd noise place of feeding. Every monkey should have an assigned next feeding time and degree of preparation, initiative. These may be revised at any time by mutual consent but never allowed to become vague or indefinite. Otherwise, the monkey will either starve to death or wind up on the manager’s back. When Bill Oncken wrote this article in thesis phd noise, 1974, managers were in a terrible bind. Writing. They were desperate for a way to free up their time, but command and control was the status quo. Managers felt they weren’t allowed to empower their subordinates to make decisions. Too dangerous. Summer Of My German Topics. Too risky.
That’s why Oncken’s message—give the monkey back to its rightful owner—involved a critically important paradigm shift. Many managers working today owe him a debt of gratitude. It is xat essay preparation, something of an understatement, however, to observe that much has changed since Oncken’s radical recommendation. Command and control as a management philosophy is summer german, all but dead, and “empowerment” is the xat essay word of the day in most organizations trying to thrive in global, intensely competitive markets. But command and control stubbornly remains a common practice.
Management thinkers and executives have discovered in the last decade that bosses cannot just give a monkey back to their subordinates and then merrily get on with their own business. Empowering subordinates is hard and complicated work. The reason: when you give problems back to subordinates to solve themselves, you have to be sure that they have both the desire and the ability to do so. As every executive knows, that isn’t always the case. Writing. Enter a whole new set of problems. Preparation. Empowerment often means you have to thesis phd noise attenuation, develop people, which is initially much more time consuming than solving the problem on your own. Just as important, empowerment can only thrive when the whole organization buys into it—when formal systems and the informal culture support it. Xat Essay. Managers need to be rewarded for delegating decisions and developing people. Otherwise, the degree of real empowerment in an organization will vary according to rise and fall wall essay, the beliefs and practices of writing, individual managers. But perhaps the most important lesson about empowerment is that effective delegation—the kind Oncken advocated—depends on a trusting relationship between a manager and his subordinate.
Oncken’s message may have been ahead of essays, his time, but what he suggested was still a fairly dictatorial solution. He basically told bosses, “Give the problem back!” Today, we know that this approach by itself is too authoritarian. To delegate effectively, executives need to establish a running dialogue with subordinates. They need to establish a partnership. After all, if subordinates are afraid of failing in front of their boss, they’ll keep coming back for writing preparation, help rather than truly take initiative. Oncken’s article also doesn’t address an aspect of delegation that has greatly interested me during the past two decades—that many managers are actually eager to take on their subordinates’ monkeys. Nearly all the rise of berlin wall essay managers I talk with agree that their people are underutilized in their present jobs. Writing. But even some of the social the fabian most successful, seemingly self-assured executives have talked about how hard it is to give up control to writing, their subordinates. I’ve come to attribute that eagerness for control to on my, a common, deep-seated belief that rewards in life are scarce and fragile. Whether they learn it from their family, school, or athletics, many people establish an identity by comparing themselves with others. When they see others gain power, information, money, or recognition, for writing, instance, they experience what the psychologist Abraham Maslow called “a feeling of deficiency”—a sense that something is being taken from them.
That makes it hard for justice the fabian essays, them to be genuinely happy about the xat essay preparation success of others—even of their loved ones. Oncken implies that managers can easily give back or refuse monkeys, but many managers may subconsciously fear that a subordinate taking the initiative will make them appear a little less strong and a little more vulnerable. How, then, do managers develop the inward security, the mentality of “abundance,” that would enable them to relinquish control and seek the growth and development of those around them? The work I’ve done with numerous organizations suggests that managers who live with integrity according to a principle-based value system are most likely to sustain an empowering style of leadership. Given the times in which he wrote, it was no wonder that Oncken’s message resonated with managers. But it was reinforced by Oncken’s wonderful gift for storytelling. I got to know Oncken on the speaker’s circuit in the 1970s, and I was always impressed by how he dramatized his ideas in thesis phd noise, colorful detail. Like the Dilbert comic strip, Oncken had a tongue-in-cheek style that got to the core of managers’ frustrations and made them want to take back control of their time. And the monkey on your back wasn’t just a metaphor for Oncken—it was his personal symbol. I saw him several times walking through airports with a stuffed monkey on his shoulder. I’m not surprised that his article is one of the two best-selling HBR articles ever.
Even with all we know about empowerment, its vivid message is even more important and relevant now than it was 25 years ago. Indeed, Oncken’s insight is preparation, a basis for my own work on time management, in which I have people categorize their activities according to urgency and social the fabian essays, importance. I’ve heard from executives again and again that half or more of their time is spent on matters that are urgent but not important. They’re trapped in an endless cycle of xat essay preparation, dealing with other people’s monkeys, yet they’re reluctant to help those people take their own initiative. As a result, they’re often too busy to spend the time they need on the real gorillas in essay on my easter, their organization. Oncken’s article remains a powerful wake-up call for managers who need to delegate effectively. “Get control over xat essay preparation, the timing and content of what you do” is appropriate advice for managing time. The first order of business is for xat essay preparation, the manager to enlarge his or her discretionary time by eliminating subordinate-imposed time.
The second is for the manager to writing preparation, use a portion of of my german soldier essay topics, this newfound discretionary time to see to it that each subordinate actually has the initiative and applies it. The third is for the manager to use another portion of the increased discretionary time to get and keep control of the timing and xat essay preparation, content of both boss-imposed and system-imposed time. Xat Essay. All these steps will increase the manager’s leverage and xat essay preparation, enable the value of and fall wall essay, each hour spent in managing management time to multiply without theoretical limit. William Oncken, Jr. , was chairman of the xat essay preparation William Oncken Corporation until his death in middle, 1988. His son, William Oncken III, now heads the xat essay writing preparation company. Donald L. Wass was president of the William Oncken Company of Texas when the article first appeared.
He now heads the Dallas–Fort Worth region of essay on my easter vacation, The Executive Committee (TEC), an international organization for presidents and CEOs.
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10 refineries close as Harvey drenches Texas energy hub. Xat Essay! Rain and xat essay writing preparation, flooding are continuing to wreak havoc on Houston and the surrounding area, and the rain is forecast to continue through the week. Writing! The devastating storm's full impact on the region's oil and gas infrastructure won't be known until coming days. Writing! Ten oil refinery plants in writing preparation, the Houston area and Corpus Christi are shutting down because of the storm, according to a report released Sunday by SP Global Platts. They normally have the capacity to refine about 2 million barrels of oil a day. That included Exxon Mobil ( XOM ) 's Baytown refinery, the second largest in the country. The campus, about 25 miles east of vacation, Houston, can process up to 584,000 barrels of crude oil per day. It employs about writing preparation, 7,000 people.
SP estimated Sunday that roughly 2.2 million barrels per rise and fall wall essay day of refining capacity were forced offline because of the storm. Overall, the Gulf area is home to refineries and other operations that account for nearly one-third of the nation's capacity to turn oil into gas, diesel and other products. Harvey's market impact became clear Sunday night when U.S. gasoline futures spiked 7% after energy markets reopened. One factor that could lessen the impact of Harvey's damage: The world has a glut of oil. As more refineries go offline, there's less stress to the system because it's well supplied, said Rob Smith, a director at IHS Markit. Harvey made landfall as a Category 4 hurricane late Friday, but was downgraded to a tropical storm by mid-Saturday. It continued to dump huge amounts of rain on Houston and cause dangerous flooding that could get worse. Federal officials said Sunday that workers from preparation 105 oil and gas production platforms had been evacuated. All told, 737 platforms in the Gulf are staffed with workers. About 22% of the oil produced in the Gulf was shut down as of Sunday, according to the Interior Department's Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement. That amounts to nearly 379,000 barrels of oil per day.
The numbers were a slight improvement over Saturday, when about a quarter of oil production in the Gulf was closed. Writing Preparation! The bureau also estimated Sunday that about 26% of natural gas production in the Gulf has been shut. Writing Preparation! Harvey is the first major storm to seriously threaten the Gulf Coast energy sector in essay on my, a while. Hurricanes Gustav and Ike in 2008, as well as Hurricane Isaac in 2012, all knocked more than 1 million barrels of Gulf oil production offline, according to the EIA. Those hurricanes also temporarily disrupted refining capacity. Hurricanes that land in Texas tend to xat essay have little impact on of my german soldier essay topics, oil production, but more significant consequences for refining, according to Tom Kloza, chief oil analyst at the Oil Price Information Service. While refineries in Corpus Christi were already closed ahead of the storm, flooding in the Houston area forced more closures Sunday.
By late afternoon, plants run by Exxon, Citgo, Petrobras, Flint Hills, Magellan, Buckeye, Shell, Phillips 66 and xat essay writing preparation, Valero Energy ( VLO ) had all closed because of the storm, according to SP Global Platts and the companies. Valero reported Sunday that there were no substantial refinery impacts because of the storm. Social The Fabian! The company said it is working with government officials to figure out writing preparation, what it needs to do to resume operations. The company's Corpus Christi plant produces 293,000 barrels per day, while its Three Rivers plant produces 89,000 barrels. Houston also marks the beginning of the Colonial Pipeline, which transports more than 100 million gallons of gasoline, heating oil and aviation fuel each day to as far as the New York harbor. Power outages during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the fabian essays, 2005 forced the shutdown of xat essay writing preparation, parts of the Colonial Pipeline for several days. Kloza said that normally refining is knocked offline for transition middle essays just a brief time, making the impact on prices fleeting.
But that depends on writing, the severity of the storm. Katrina was the exception, Kloza said, referring to preparation the 2005 storm that badly damaged Gulf Coast operations. He predicted on Thursday that Harvey is likely to writing cause only a short-term jump in thesis attenuation, gas prices of 5 to 10 cents per gallon, though he said a 25-cent spike in a worst-case scenario was also possible. The average price of a gallon of regular gasoline nationwide has ticked up a few cents in recent days, according to AAA. Xat Essay Writing Preparation! You're talking about a situation where a month from now gas prices will probably be lower. And Fall Essay! But a week from xat essay writing now they'll be higher, said Kloza. --CNNMoney's Nathaniel Meyersohn and Kaya Yurieff contributed to essay on my this story. Trump hits a new low in attacks on the free press. Writing! Most stock quote data provided by BATS. Market indices are shown in real time, except for the DJIA, which is delayed by two minutes.
All times are ET. Disclaimer. Morningstar: Morningstar, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factset: FactSet Research Systems Inc. . All rights reserved. Chicago Mercantile Association: Certain market data is the property of Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc. and rise and fall of berlin wall, its licensors. Preparation! All rights reserved. Dow Jones: The Dow Jones branded indices are proprietary to and are calculated, distributed and marketed by DJI Opco, a subsidiary of SP Dow Jones Indices LLC and have been licensed for use to SP Opco, LLC and CNN. Standard Poor's and SP are registered trademarks of Standard Poor's Financial Services LLC and Dow Jones is a registered trademark of words school, Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC. Preparation! All content of the Dow Jones branded indices © SP Dow Jones Indices LLC and/or its affiliates.
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country essay china A Country Analysis of China. For Staples Incorporated. Miriam (Penny) Milsom. University of Maryland University College. February 2, 2003. China with its recent transition efforts offers an optimum environment for Staples to expand. There is a huge labor pool supplied by the world's largest population. There is a high-level of capital input energized by sufficient household savings and foreign direct investment. China offers a technological environment with significant overseas transfer of information.
In addition, significant structural and legal reform efforts are well under way and although the future is unknown, overwhelmingly a positive future is predicted for China if it can successfully balance the Golden Straightjacket with its cultural roots. With the right entry vehicle and some minor changes to operating methods, Staples might very well flourish in China’s growing economy. Table of Contents. Limitations encompassing this paper may include: (1) Time. The research of this paper took place over the entire semester from 10.27.02 – 02.01.03 and the writing took place during the xat essay preparation, one-week period from 01.27 – 02.02, 2003. (2) Resources. Research was limited to information accessible online and in English.
Many of the resources regarding China were in Chinese. Staples first opened its doors less than 20 years ago and of my essay, has since grown to b e an $11M company with over 1400 stores located in the US, England, Germany, Canad a, the xat essay writing preparation, Netherlands and soldier topics, Portugal as well as an online presence. (Staples Corporate Inf ormation, 2003) In true entrepreneurial spirit and western culture, Staples was the writing, first s uperstore or category killer to offer office supplies at discount prices. School? As it continues to expand internationally, it is only natural that China, with its 1.2 billion population, recent a dmission to the World Trade Organization and xat essay writing preparation, the burgeoning small- and mid-size business environment, would be considered as a potential target. China could offer Staples an essay easter vacation, opportunity to increase the target market reach while maintaini ng the core product of low price office supplies. In order to evaluate the potential of Chinese expansion, Staples needs to perform a country analysis on China. According to Sullivan (2002) when a company begins to consider international expansion, it is important to conduct a country and a market analysis as well as an internal SWOT analysis. Xat Essay Writing? However, the country analysis should be performed first, “since countries with hig h risk and poor infrastructure are poor candidates for words middle school essays, business activities regardless of market potential” (p. 364).
A country analysis encompasses three primary categories: Economic, Poli tical, and Legal Conditions – this includes the business climate, economic conditions, currency issues, government laws and policies as well as the ethics environment. In assessing these conditions for China, we examined the political and regulatory system, anti-competitive practices, product and service standards, intellectual property rights, financial markets, and writing preparation, monetary policy. Infrastructure Analysis – the focus is “on the factors which support the economic and business climate and allow it to function” (Sullivan, 2002, p. 522). In evaluating China’s infrastructure we specifically looked at the economic and social aspects. Managing and wall, Culture – “Even if a country has a good economic and legal environment and suitable infrastructure,” the culture “may create unacceptable conditions for a foreign country” (Sullivan, p. 522). A thorough examination of these three categories will help us and xat essay writing, Staples determine if China offers a plausible expansion route or if it is too high of a risk. During the past decade, the Chinese government has opened their markets to world investors creating laws and regulations more in thesis attenuation line with th e World Trade Organization (WTO) guidelines. This change in philosophy has encoura g ed foreign investment in xat essay writing China. Essay On My Easter? However, there are still many risks to consider before expanding to China. One risk is that the Chinese communist, socialist philosophy continues to be core to xat essay writing the Chinese culture and may impact the political/legal environment and therefore foreign investments in the future.
Another risk is that the essay, stability of the xat essay writing, current Chinese regime may be negatively impacted by essays demonstrations protesting cultural changes, low growth, and inequities of preparation, wealth and power. In addition, there continues to be festering discontent in the poorer interior provinces and with ethnic minorities, farmers, and members of the unemployed. Other risk factors include the rise of berlin essay, many rules and xat essay writing preparation, restrictions for social essays, firms operating in China. Certain firms may be blocked from entering a particular field or may face difficult rules regarding wage and price controls, technology, personnel, financing, and unreasonable taxes. Finally, there exist personal rivalries, dishonesty, nepotism, favoritism and corruption in China. The Chinese government is, however, taking steps to create and enforce a stricter legal system, support freer commerce, and embrace the global marketplace. “The People's Republi c of China (PRC) began developing its present legal system in writing the late 1970's. The passa ge of the justice the fabian essays, Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture Law in 1979 was the preparation, first step by the Chinese government to build a legal structure governing foreign investme nt.
Since then, China has continued to build a legal system that will protect their rights as well as the phd noise attenuation, rights of their foreign partners” (ChinaLaw, 1998, ¶ 1). Unfortunately, “policy making in Beijing is like steering a supertanker -- it takes a long time before a policy gets approval and becomes a reality” (Jackson, 2002, ¶ 8). There are many risks involved in expanding to China and there are also many legal avenues that Staples would have to follow in order to xat essay preparation maintain operations in China. However, the Chinese government is taking steps to conform to WTO guidelines by creating and enforcing a stricter legal system, supporting freer commerce, and embracing the global marketplace. New Chinese legislation is rise and fall wall essay regularly introduced to protect private personal property rights and corporate assets. China is expected to preparation increase the creation and enforcement of such investment-friendly laws. When Staples considers expanding into the Chinese market, it should investigate the anti-competitive practices, cartels and monopolies that exist there.
Cartels are independent enterprises created to eliminate competitors. Justice? The leaders of xat essay writing, a Cartel hope to summer essay create a monopoly, or an enterprise that has the xat essay writing preparation, exclusive control or rights to sell a product. Cartels and monopolies unlawfully enlarge their areas of trade and create unfair selling practices in order to acquire illegal income which endangers the interests of the consumers. In the People’s Republic of China (PRC), price monopolies are prevalent. A price monopoly is seen when “some operators of State monopolized industries take advantage of their monopolistic position to of my topics pressure the government into setting a high price. They even adjust price levels or create new charge items themselves” ( china.org.cn, 2002, June 7, ¶ 6). A significant hindrance of the monopolies in China is writing preparation their ability to influence price setting. Without enough true market price information accessible, the government is unable to figure the actual prices for monopolized products. Currently, the Chinese government is transition words school improving regulations and laws that govern industries such as electric power, aviation, railways, telecommunications, oil, natural gas, etc. These laws will knock down monopolies in order to improve competition ( china.org.cn, 2001).
Reconfiguring the monopolies is one of the most important components of the state’s Five-Year Plan (2001-2005). Xat Essay Writing? The premise of the reforms will be in separating government’s management position from preparation, private sector operations, allowing full freedom to companies to do business. Reforms will focus on introducing more competitors into the industries and markets, permitting outside private investment, including foreign dollars to preparation enter economic infrastructure and even the utility supply industry. It is apparent that cartels and monopolies are formidable obstacles for Staples and topics, could be a bad anti-competitive factor against the success of an expansion to China. Another obstacle would be that China is writing preparation a large state and the government may not successfully eliminate the large monopolies. Finally, implementation of China’s new reform laws to open up the markets to fair pricing and competition might not be successful. Product and essay on my easter, service standards reflect an expected level of xat essay, quality and safety as identified within an industry. They serve the essay on my easter vacation, purpose of protecting the consumer and equally important, the manufacturer’s employees in the form of safety standards. Standards are an accepted factor in writing preparation the United States, and with the formation of the Internationa l Standards Organization (ISO) and other international organizations have become commonplace internationally. China, however, has historically used their standards as a means of blocking imports, although they have begun to place more emphasis on product standards with their induction into the WTO. As recent as 1997, a Country Alert noted that “’shoddy goods’ produced in China are a regular fixture in national newspapers.” It goes on thesis attenuation, to describe “a corrupt business environment, in which many factories put short-term profits above quality and in preparation which regulations on product quality and safety standards are often not enforced.” In fact in 2000, testing showed that less than 80% of a random sample met prescribed standards (Country Briefing, 2001, January 22).
A sign of changing times in China is represented by the establishment of a Standardization Administration in 2001 and the first ever mandatory product recall in 2002. Maintaining a strict vigilance on product and service standards is critical for China if it hopes to competitively succeed in essay on my vacation the world market, as many of these standards are not only expected but required by businesses. The determination of expanding Staples to the Chinese market is not directly impacted by product and service standards. Where they do become important is with the products that Staples stocked. Xat Essay Writing Preparation? Interestingly, many of these products are already manufactured in of my soldier essay China under US standards by companies such as 3M, Pilot Pens, and Avery Dennison. The good news is that should Staples decide to expand to China it will probably not have to import many of the xat essay, products it sells.
Intellectual property is an idea from a person’s mind that is distinctive and innovative. The issue of intellectual property (IP) is that it has a value in the marketplace. People are willing to pay for such things as an idea, unique name, business method, computer process, or presentation. Profit is reduced if Staples cannot protect their rights to the ideas that are produced from essay easter vacation, their initial costs. If Staples cannot protect their investments, they may be less willing to writing preparation commit time and money to the production of new ideas. IP can be protected under national laws, world treaties , and memorandums of understanding. IP laws are often regional laws that originate in one country and rise and fall wall, affect the xat essay writing preparation, citizens of that country.
However, IP issues also affect international trading when ideas and transition school, innovations cross national borders. During the past few years, China has made efforts to writing preparation protect intellectual rights. In 1985, China joined the Paris Convention for of berlin, the Protection of Industrial Property. In 1992, the United States and China signed the Memorandum of xat essay writing preparation, Understanding on social essays, the Protection of Intellectual Property that required China to ensure certain intellectual property protection. In addition, China agreed to writing preparation accede to easter the Berne Convention and the Universal Copyright Convention . By signing these agreements, China has pledged to develop IP protections and to establish equal rights for xat essay writing, foreign investors.
Although laws and agreements are in place in China, Staples’ should be aware that their IP stil may not be protected. The implementation of of my soldier, these laws has proven lacking, due largely to xat essay preparation ambiguities in the law and difficulties in enforcement” (Spierer, 2002, p. 1). Ambiguities in the laws create loopholes. For example, one provision of the Chinese law allows a few copies of products to be made for non-commercial use. Yet another ambiguity refers to german soldier essay products that are banned from publication. “The Copyright Law stipulates that works banned from publication shall receive no copyright protection, but does not clearly define ‘banned‘ works,” (Spierer, p. 3) leaving the door open to ban publications after the fact to suit their needs. Aside from the xat essay, ambiguities in Chinese IP law, another issue for Staples to examine is the Chinese ability to enforce the easter vacation, law. China’s central government may be unable to police the huge area and large population of the People’s Republic of China.
The decentralization of the central government makes it even more difficult to monitor and enforce international policies. Other issues pertaining to protecting IP rights include corrupt officials, and a Chinese culture that encourages copying as an essential means of learning. Xat Essay? Also, consumers have easy access to words school essays pirated information and the Chinese consumer is not concerned with illegal violation if IP Law. China’s financial markets consist of bank loans, stock exchanges, international capital markets and bonds. Despite China’s efforts to xat essay writing preparation liberalize its markets, they still remain largely closed. Summer Soldier Topics? A pegged exchange rate, significant controls to limit investment and “state-owned” everything are some of the primary reasons that China is viewed as a closed or restricted market. Bank loans are the primary means of funding for Chinese companies, accounting for 12 times more capital than the stock market (Sommers, 2002, p.15). Writing Preparation? There are four State sanctioned banks able to offer investment banking services domestically -- 1) the Agriculture Bank of China (ABC), 2) the Industrial and essay easter, Commercial Bank of xat essay writing, China (ICBC), 3) the China Construction Bank (CCB), and thesis attenuation, 4) the xat essay preparation, Bank of China (BOC) [i] . Together they “control about thesis attenuation three-quarters of the country’s deposits and commercial loans” ( Murphy, 2003, ¶5). Xat Essay? What makes the process particularly ineffective is that “ 90% of essay vacation, loans are almost all for state-owned enterprises” (SOEs) and writing, a huge number of them are non-performing. ( Murphy) China has two stock exchanges located in phd noise attenuation Shanghai and Shenzhen. Created for xat essay writing, the initial purpose of providing SOEs a means of obtaining additional fundin g, they offer four official classes of stock: A, B, C and H. As of 2002 1,200 companies offered A shares, but due to summer of my essay the primarily state-owned nature of the companies, only 30% of the shares are available for purchase by xat essay writing preparation Chinese citizens.
These shares are also not currently available to foreign investors although the QFII proposal would let them in under very stringent conditions. Conversely, B shares are open to rise wall essay both foreign, and as of 2001, domestic investors, but there are only a little over 100 companies that were able to obtain the xat essay writing preparation, necessary state approvals to summer of my topics be listed. Overall, only 15% of the companies listed on the exchanges are privately held. Because the xat essay, privately held Chinese companies aren’t able to get their funding from sanctioned banks or the stock market they are turning en masse to the International capital markets through foreign direct investment (FDI). Even the summer german soldier, mis-managed and often financially troubled SOEs are eager to sell, but a 30% equity limit is xat essay preparation a significant restriction. ( Wonacott, 2002) The bond market is yet another example of the closed nature of China. The majority of bonds are government or treasury bonds, with corporate bonds representing less than 2%.
Once again the government has left private companies out of the funding opportunity although Beijing has promised to rectify this in the future. Its important to of berlin wall note that lack of money in China isn’t a problem, as it has one of the highest annual savings rates in xat essay preparation the world. Unfortunately, the majority of investment opportunities are in poorly run state-owned companies. “Industry remains dominated by social justice the fabian essays state-owned enterprises (SOEs), despite the government’s recently articulated commitment to the private sector. Where free-market practice runs ahead of what the law countenances, the preparation, government periodically intervenes to essay on my easter reverse developments” (Country Briefing, 2002, December 30, ¶2). Preparation? As Jingu (2002) notes, “China currently maintains total control over its monetary policy in a closed capital market” (p.
5). The term monetary policy refers to the measures taken by a central bank to influence the availability and cost of money and credit. The objectives of a country’s monetary policies are to help promote national economic goals. By maintaining a stable financial industry, positive impacts will be made to both imports and exports, creating jobs and increasing national wealth. The Federal Reserve establishes the xat essay preparation, monetary policy for the United States by making changes in the open market operations, the discount rate, and the reserve requirements. Writing? The result is an influence on such events as the interest rate, money supply, unemployment, and ultimately, the costs of goods and services. In China, the monetary policy is established by the People’s Bank of China ( PBC ). The PBC , similar to the Federal Reserve, implements policies that will promote economic growth and ensure the stability of the Chinese financial industry. In addition, the PBC approves, supervises, and administers other financial institutions and thesis phd noise, financial markets and publicizes financial and preparation, business laws and xat essay writing, rules.
The existing monetary and credit structure created by the PBC appears to xat essay writing be very successful, but there are some identifiable risks. Despite many reforms, mechanisms to control risk have not yet been created since the central bank's 'window guidance' continues to be the major reason behind lending institutions' decisions. There continues to on my easter be political pressure from the xat essay preparation, PBC to summer expand loans during stagnant economic conditions, generating poor performing loans. Xat Essay? Another negative aspect of the Chinese monetary system is that strong government control of the PBC and resulting fiscal and credit policies make it difficult for writing preparation, the financial systems to mature. Banks and businesses will be concerned less about the costs and xat essay writing, risks if the thesis phd noise, central bank robustly controls credit policies. Lack of equitable money distribution also prese nts a problem, with the majority of available money eventually flowing to only a small group of big-name firms with reliable credit record.
Finally, the current PBC credit policie s, successful or not, may not be able to maintain their strong control in the long run. Private and foreign companies are becoming an writing preparation, increasingly major force in the Chinese economy. Of My German Soldier Topics? These private and foreign sectors have not traditionally been covered by Chinese lending practices. Even with the above mentioned risks, China appears to have been more successful than the United States in xat essay preparation surviving the recent turbulent financial crises while maintaining a level growth. This success may be a result of the strong government control that the PBC has over independent local banks and other financial institutions.
Under this central control, the Chinese government directs banks to lend to specific industries according to a national plan. Oppositely, the U. S. must rely on a free market and federal incentives to guide specific industry development and investment and other economic changes. A country’s economy cannot grow until sufficient infrastructure is in place. Transition? China’s infrastructure is very complex (Hand, 2002), and consists of “those services provided by public and writing, private utilities which foster production, trade, and consumption” (Sullivan, 2002, p. 475). These services include power, telecommunications, water, sewage and sanitation, piped gas, roadways, railways, ports, airports, and most importantly banking. Over the past two decades, China has revitalized its infrastructure. Much of rise, China’s success stems from its promotion of the privatization of enterprises, the breakdown of its monopolies to provide fair competition for all entrepreneurs, and the creation of treaties, agreements, etc. that promote foreign business relations (china.org.cn, 2002). Of critical importance to xat essay Staples will be the adequacy of China’s infrastructure in thesis transportation, foreign trading, finance, telecommunications, and the Internet. China’s complex transportation infrastructure consists of old and new roadways, antiquated railways, undeveloped rural dirt roads, ancient waterways (along the xat essay preparation, major rivers), and booming air traffic, all responsible for moving more than 1.2 billion people from village to town to city, across different provinces, etc. Phd Noise Attenuation? (Xinhuanet, 2003).
At present, China is seeing a growth in transportation that parallels its growing economy, requiring ongoing improvements. Currently, the preparation, last section of a double-track line on the Beijing-Kowloon Railway (a major North-South route) is xat essay writing preparation being laid. Xat Essay Preparation? And plans to social continue numerous highway and railway construction projects are in place. Air travel is writing another major mode of Chinese transportation that has also undergone change. Although most transportation is on land or in the air, China also has extensive waterways. Chinese shipping companies are ranked among the world's largest and social justice essays, provide services to all of the world's major ports (Gates, July/August, 2001). China’s telecommunications and writing, Internet infrastructures have grown and helped to thesis boost the efficiency of xat essay writing, communication for both domestic and foreign businesses. Ten years ago, most Chinese people had never seen a cellular phone, but today 150 million Chinese people possess their own cellular phone.
Staples should be aware, however, that the development of telecommunication and the Internet is uneven among provinces, with growth much slower in the central and justice the fabian, west regions. China’s financial infrastructure appears to be very strong. In the past seven years, China has received more foreign direct investment than any other country in the world except the writing preparation, U.S. Summer Of My Essay? Currently global multi-national companies are actively investing in preparation China, and more than 400 of the top 500 global companies have investments in China (china.org.cn, 2002, November 13). China’s openness to foreign trade has immensely improved its economic infrastructure. Over the past three decades, treaties and social justice the fabian, agreements, such as the Sino-US Relations, the WTO accession, etc. Xat Essay Writing Preparation? have increased Chinese imports and exports.
Despite the state’s economic gains and success in modernization, the economic infrastructure is still undergoing many changes and there is no promise that these changes will produce further success for China. A country’s economic infrastructure cannot be at its best unless its social infrastructure is strong enough to support it. On My Vacation? China’s social fabric is growing stronger every year and as a result quality of life has dramatically improved over the past 30 years. As Staples considers expansion into preparation China it must take into account two primary aspects of the social infrastructure that directly impact productivity: education and health. Other important societal factors include employment, work ethics, environment, and culture. China is the and fall essay, most populated state in the world and continues to grow, with expectations of 1.5B people by xat essay preparation 2050 (Populations.com, 2003).
The average life span is 71 (China.org.cn, 2003), and as the population grows the employment sector grows. China’s employment rose from 650 to 730 million between 1990 and 2001. With an unemployment rate that remains steady at about 4%, there are plenty of employment candidates available to Staples. (China Daily, 2002, November 12) Since 1949, the Chinese government has placed an emphasis on education, initiating reforms that have increased the number of students. Today, 91% of China has implemented compulsory primary education resulting in almost 99% of school-age youth attending school and a declining dropout rate (China.org.cn, 2001, April 4). The literacy of young and soldier essay, middle-aged people has increased by 7% and the illiteracy rate among China’s adults has been reduced from 22.23 to 8.72 percent in a 10 year-period. Concurrent with a restored status at the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1972, China’s healthcare system improved resulting in better overall health for the people. Xat Essay Writing? China now has an average 2.33 hospital beds and 1.6 doctors for summer of my german essay topics, every 1,000 people (Xinhuanet, 2003), and the mortality rate has dropped to an all time low of 6.5%. The Chinese people have strong work ethics, based on a long history of hardworking farmers, strong laborers and creative philosophers (Xinhuanet, 2003). As the xat essay, population grows more educated, the two trends have the of my german essay topics, opportunity to writing combine and offer a stellar workforce for Staples. Culture can be defined as “a set of accepted behavior patterns, values, assumptions, and shared common experiences” (Cultural Savvy, 2000).
Culture is extremely important from a business perspective as it will shape employee behaviors and expectations, determine acceptable management styles, and influence interaction with outside entities. China’s culture is wall essay founded on the 2500 year old Confucius teachings of “the importance of society, the group, and hierarchical relationships within a society.” It is xat essay preparation collective in social justice nature, directly contrasting the individualistic culture found in xat essay US businesses. (Ralston, Holt, Terpstra, 1997) According to on my easter Sullivan (2002) the Hofstede dimensions are one of the best known means of examining culture used in international business. Only one of the five dimensions is scored for China, but the other dimensions can be estimated (See Appendix B). China’s degree of individualism would be on preparation, the low end due to its collective nature, and focus on the group v. the rise, individual. Guanxi, loosely translated as relationships, is writing very important in the Chinese business culture. The bureaucratic, state-owned businesses lend themselves to the high end of the justice the fabian, power distance scale due to their hierarchical nature. China has an extremely high intolerance for uncertainty , again stemming from the state-owned bureaucracy exemplified by a lack of risk or uncertainty. This score however is probably moving lower (toward accepting risk and change) as outside / westernized influences creep into the culture and businesses become privatized. The degree of assertiveness would be located on the lower end of the scale, toward nurturing and cooperative living, but also supported by the hierarchical nature of businesses.
Finally, the xat essay writing, one Hofstede score that is provided is for long-term orientation and is off the scale on the high end, which tracks, since China has one of the on my vacation, highest rates of xat essay preparation, savings in the world (40% GDP). Where the US focuses on individualism, equality, achievement, change, taking risks, and immediate gratification, China is more collective, valuing cooperation within a hierarchical structure, the status quo, and decision making only after careful and detailed analysis. (Sullivan, 2002). Because “China and the U.S. represent ideological opposites in the work environment, in spite of the present move toward capitalism in China,” (Ralston, Holt, and Terpstra, 1997, ¶24), US based companies such as Staples will face quite a few challenges. Staples represents a typical western or individualistic culture oriented company. Based on summer of my soldier, their recruiting slogan from staples.com, the typical Staples employee is entrepreneurial, individualistic, risk taking, and assertive. This is in direct contrast to xat essay the classic Chinese employee. Other key challenges include a hesitancy among Chinese employee’s to raise problems until there is absolutely no other option, making them difficult to resolve. Essays? This stems partially from the state-owned aspect of many business es which has created a culture with little incentive to preparation take responsibility. Transition Middle School? These SOEs guarantee employment and benefits and whenever they run into issues are bailed out by the government. Xat Essay Writing Preparation? “Under the german essay, collective system, where conformity meant anonymity, and xat essay preparation, anonymity meant a peaceful life, there was a disincentive to use initiative or to take responsibility for a situation.” (China Business Desk, 2000, ¶6) The good news is that as the and fall of berlin essay, SOE’s are replaced by xat essay writing privatization, the thesis, values are slowly changing. Job insecurity, the writing, need for stakeholder management resulting from tightening budgets and unsecured losses, income for performance and other capitalistic business practices are slowly being accepted although perhaps not yet embraced by the Chinese.
And entrepreneurship is becoming a “respectable occupation.” (Zapalska, and Edwards, 2001, ¶21) As Sullivan (2002) points out, a country analysis should not just be a data dump, but rather it should “interpret” the information in regards to the company needs and strategy. A thorough examination of the different facets in transition words school essays the country analysis will guide Staples not only toward the best entry method but a determination as to whether or not China offers a lucrative expansion option. The first step is to examine the costs and xat essay writing, benefits to essays doing business in China based on the information collected in writing the previous sections: Costs / Benefits Analysis of Doing Business in China. Communist / Socialist Philosophy. Stringent rules and restrictions for foreign operations.
Foreign investment welcomed – highest FDI in the world excluding US. History of nepotism and corruption. A new generation entering the workforce. Prevalence of bureaucratic state-owned enterprises and price monopolies. Trend toward privatization of state-owned businesses and entrepreneurial endeavors. Product quality and safety standards not always enforced. 2001 creation of the Standardization Administration and a realization that quality is necessary to compete globally. Decentralization of the government. Decentralization of the government.
Lack of funding available to private enterprises. Highest savings rate in the world. Relatively closed financial markets. Newly proposed reforms to provide citizens and attenuation, foreign entities increased investment opportunities. Government controlled economy. Significant economic growth. Rural areas not well connected. Burgeoning telecommunications (including Internet) infrastructure. Increased poverty and disgruntled citizens. Emerging middle class. China is clearly a country in transition.
Realizing the need to put on Friedman’s (2000) Golden Straightjacket, the government is in xat essay writing preparation the tailoring process, “moving toward, the following golden rules: making the private sector the primary engine of its economic growth, maintaining a low rate of on my vacation, inflation and price stability, shrinking the size of xat essay preparation, its state bureaucracy, maintaining as close to thesis phd noise a balanced budget as possible, if not a surplus, eliminating and writing, lowering tariffs on imported goods, removing restrictions on foreign investment, getting rid of quotas and domestic monopolies, increasing exports, privatizing state-owned industries and writing, utilities, deregulating capital markets, making its currency convertible, opening its industries, stock and bond markets to direct foreign ownership and investment, deregulating its economy to promote as much domestic competition as possible, eliminating government corruption, subsidies and kickbacks as much as possible, opening its banking and telecommunications systems to writing preparation private ownership and competition and allowing its citizens to choose from an array of competing pension options and foreign-run pension and mutual funds” (p. 105). China still has a long way to go before the jacket fits comfortably and thesis, during the transition phase China doesn’t want to upset the proverbial apple cart, or cause the financial upheaval and crises other countries have faced as they’ve transitioned. Xat Essay Writing? It is also critical to understand that as China evolves, there is a 2500 year old collectivist culture that will probably remain a significant factor of the business environment. The Economist.com summarizes it perfectly in its most recent Backgrounder (see Appendix C). The new China, after it transitions to social justice the fabian essays a more open and capitalistic philosophy, offers significant benefits to a company such as Staples. With a population of 1.2 Billion Staples would have easy access to both employees and shoppers. The emerging middle class and trend toward privatization offer a target market that would definitely be interested in Staples category-killer product offerings.
The fact that a significant portion of the products Staples stocks on its shelves are already manufactured in China is a financi al plus creating less need for importation. To enter this market, Staples has several options available and needs “to evaluate the pros and cons of” foreign direct investment through, “joint ventures, subsidiaries, or a mix of these as a mode of future involvement in the country” (Sullivan, 2002, p. 523). Staples current expansion model is focused on beefing up its North American holdings. Over the xat essay writing, past several years though, Staples has built and purchased a strong European presence. Using a “combination of cash generated from operations and debt or equity offerings to fund its expansion and acquisition activities” (Staples 2001 Annual Report, p. 25), Staples has focused on only adding wholly owned subsidiaries to its business. Staples has also expanded via its Internet presence. According to phd noise their 2000 annual report, they “recognize the long-term potential of electronic commerce and plan to continue to aggressively address this market.” To expand into China, Staples has several options of FDI including setting up a wholly owned subsidiary, purchasing an preparation, equity position in a currently existing company, creating a joint venture and a very rarely used option of summer of my german soldier essay, establishing a branch office.
For each of these options there are numerous restrictions enforced by China on foreign firms that Staples will need to evaluate. Wholly Owned Subsidiary. The legal policies and regulations appear to be a little unclear as to the specific requirements or impediments to xat essay writing operating a wholly owned subsidiary in China. According to justice essays a Country Briefing (2002, December 30) there is xat essay a foreign-owned cap of 65% that cannot be exceeded. Thesis Phd Noise Attenuation? The briefing discusses Carrefour, a French retailer, that recently came under scrutiny for violating the ceiling and was “ordered to writing reduce their holdings to the permitted limit” (¶3). Fortunately for the long-term, the ceiling will be increased as a result of China’s new membership in the WTO, but in the meantime, China is hoping to give its domestic chain stores the opportunity to consolidate and become more efficient before facing stiff foreign competition.
An exception apparently can be made if at least half of the annual output is exported or if the nature of the operations relies heavily on advanced technology that is beneficial to China. In this situation, Staples would maintain control of their business activities with little interference from the words school essays, Chinese government although it would be considered a Chinese legal entity under the jurisdiction of Chinese law. Staples would also have to employ Chinese labor in accordance with local and central government labor laws and would be encouraged to establish trade unions. (ChinaLaw, 1998) Unfortunately as Staples is a seller of manufactured goods, there would be little export involved negating Staples ability to open a wholly owned subsidiary. This could be a good thing though as Jin Partners (2002) note that “t raditionally the wholly foreign owned enterprise has rarely been the chosen method for investment in China. The independence offered to the foreign investor is often outweighed by the lack of direct links to the domestic economy.” Joint Venture. An equity joint venture is one of the most common means of FDI. “Joint ventures are usually established to exploit the market knowledge, preferential market treatment, and manufacturing capability of the Chinese side along with the xat essay writing preparation, technology, manufacturing know-how, and marketing experience of the foreign partner” (Paglee C. 2005. Par 1). To establish a joint venture in China, the host party submits “a project proposal, preliminary feasibility study, and a letter of intent” to the local government. The same information along with a “written opinion” from the local government must be submitted to MOFTEC for approval.
It’s important to note that “Joint ventures are supposed to export their products rather than supply the domestic market” ( Australia China Business Council, 2000). In a joint venture scenario, Staples would be required to contribute a minimum of 25% capital. Essay? Share holdings are usually non-negotiable and cannot be transferred without approval from the Chinese government. Also, Staples would be restricted from withdrawing registered capital during the life of the joint venture contract. However given the exportation requirement, it does not seem that this would be a viable option for Staples. Equity Position. Another option open to writing preparation Staples is to gain an equity position in an already existing office supply store via a merger or acquisition. According to Bath Grams (2001), this method of on my easter vacation, foreign investment is much quicker in regards to getting through approval processes as a result of China’s WTO membership. Historically, China’s “ ill-fitting patchwork of laws and regulations” made it extremely difficult for xat essay writing preparation, foreign equity owners to have any input into restructuring their host nation businesses.
The new laws however, have created an environment where MAs are often more advantageous to foreign companies. This could be a very viable option for Staples as it is in line with its current expansion strategy. The difficulty, similar to the joint venture option will be in finding a similar company in China. Instead, Staples may have to look at purchasing a number of smaller, localized, stationary, office furniture, and xat essay writing, supply stores and restructuring them to create a superstore or category killer. Or they could search for companies that might be looking to divest themselves of xat essay preparation, secondary offer supply businesses. Bath Grams (2001) note that this is becoming a common event; “The MA Provisions are being used even by companies in relatively unsaturated industries because as both domestic and foreign- invested competitors move in to claim market share, pressure is exerted on the less efficient operations to shed excess capacity, dispose of non- performing entities or simply downsize to focus on core operations.” Branch Office. A final option for Staples is the establishment of a Branch Office. In 1993, Chinese law adopted a method for rise wall essay, establishing a foreign branch office that would have manufacturing and selling capabilities but would not be considered a Chinese legal person. This law would allow Staples to conduct business in China while not requiring them to make the more sizable investment required when setting up a wholly foreign owned enterprise. A branch office would be a Staples, rather than a Chinese, legal entity.
This will leave Staples open to liabilities from its China operations, should things go wrong, but give them the opportunity to conduct business. Xat Essay Writing? Basically, a branch office is similar to any other foreign enterprise in China without as high a level of investment. The Branch Office has not been widely used in China, however, it may be a loophole to get around the stricter requirements of writing, setting up a joint venture or a wholly foreign owned enterprise. The country analysis tells us to proceed with caution. Before making a final determination about expansion into xat essay preparation China, we recommend that a SWOT analysis be conducted along with a competitive assessment of China. The SWOT analysis must take into summer of my soldier ac count product offering, distribution methods, marketing communications, manufacturing options, financing and management from a global perspective, specific to China. If the additional analysis further justifies immediate expansion into xat essay China, Staples should set up a Representative Office to act as a conduit between the U.S. Staples Corpor ation and China. “The registration of a representative office is required in order to lawfully employ Chinese nationals, to open a bank account, to import personal effects duty-free, to import office equipment without an import license, to obtain direct telecommunication lines, to display signs with the thesis, company name, or to xat essay writing use business cards that identify the company's presence in China” (Paglee, 1998). This office will provide Staples with time to gain experience and understanding of the Chinese Market along with the thesis phd noise attenuation, equally important rules and regulations that must followed to gain entry.
It will also allow Staples to formulate an acceptable exit strategy based on its entry options. If the decision is xat essay made to move forward, we believe Staples best options for entry would be via a Branch Office or Wholly Owned Subsidiary depending on the time frame. The Branch Office would be the first point of summer, entry but as China becomes more global and the regulations regarding FDI or loosened further a Wholly Owned Subsidiary option would probably become viable. Whatever method it chooses, Staples needs to remember that Chinese culture is based on 2500 years of Confucius teachings that will be difficult if not impossible to overcome. The result is that Staples needs to writing preparation be ready, willing and able to essays integrate some of this culture into its every day business operations in China. Relationships will have to preparation be cultivated all along the supply chain as well as with the employees and customers. Management expectations of initiative taking, individualistic, self-motivating employees may need to be tempered slightly to accommodate the more group oriented, tentative Chinese. This can be done through the use of teams and motivations to encourage initiative. Staples will also need to determine the best location for its store placement. Further research will be required, but Staples should look for areas where transportation of its goods will be simply accessible.
The stores should be strategically located in the urban dwellings where it will probably do best because that is where China’s business professionals, who will need to order pens, word processors, etc., most often live and work. Staples, should examine cellular and Internet access as an indicator of locations because the users will typify the target market, and these users are more likely to need services from Staples. International Standards Organization (ISO), July 17, 2002. Bath, V. Grams, R. (2001). Get ready for China’s MA boom. BizLaw Article. Justice? Retrieved online from: http://www.bizilaw.com/articles/article018.html.
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Essay/Term paper: Use of paralanguage and kinesics in everyday life. Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on xat essay writing, Social Issues: Use Of Paralanguage And Kinesics In Everyday Life , you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. Rise And Fall Wall? While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade. The use of kinesics and paralanguage in everyday life is the most. prominent use of persuasion we use subconsciously. Xat Essay Writing? They are used subconsciously. because you may not know what they mean. Which can cause cultural tension if. you do something that may seem harmless to transition words middle school essays you but may be a great insult to.
another culture. Paralanguage has many forms such as whistling which can be. used by many people as a means of entertaining by xat essay whistling a song or even in. American culture used to wall essay hound women on the streets because they appear to be. attractive. These two uses of preparation persuasion I will discuss about in essay easter my paper. I.
will discuss the history of writing both and also how they are used today in everyday. the body, or movement resulting from muscular and skeletal shift. This includes. all actions, physical or physiological, automatic reflexes, posture, facial. expressions, gestures, and writing preparation, other body movements. Body language, body idiom, gesture language, organ language and kinesic acts are just some terms used to. depict kinesics.
In ways that body language works in nonverbal acts, body. language parallels paralanguage. Kinesic acts may substitute for xat essay writing preparation language, accompany it, or modify it. Kinesic acts may be lexical or informative and. directive in nature, or they may be emotive or empathic movements.
Posture is. one of the components of xat essay writing preparation kinesics. Posture is xat essay writing, broken down into three basic. positions: bent knees, lying down, and standing. On My? Artists and mimes have always. been aware of the range of communication possible through body stance. But. there are some cultural differences in posture positions.
Most people use the. bent knee position to eat, but while the xat essay writing, Romans used to eat lying down. Prince. Peter of Greece and Denmark described the sleeping posture of the Tibetans. before World War II. He said that the local men slept outside at night huddled. around the fire, hunched over on their knees with their faces resting in their. recognized the relationship of facial expression, gesture, and posture.
He. declared that studying each one independently was justified for the purpose of. analysis, but they should be recognized as a whole unit that function as an. expression. He devised four basic kinds from 347 different postures in xat essay his. experiment.
The four basic kinds are: approach, withdrawal, expansion, and. contraction. Approach referred to such things as attention, interest, scrutiny, and curiosity. Withdrawal involved drawing back or turning away, refusal, repulsion, and disgust. Expansion referred to the expanded chest, erect trunk. and head, and raised shoulders, which conveyed pride, conceit, arrogance, disdain, mastery, and self-esteem.
Contraction was characterized by forward. trunk, bowed head, drooping shoulders, and sunken chest. Studies have. identified postural behavior with personality types and ways of life, for. example relaxation, assertiveness, and restraint; and xat essay writing, have noted the correlation. of certain kinds of movement in sleeping and waking acts.
Posture is a. substantial marker of transition words middle feminine and masculine behavior. Xat Essay Preparation? The relationship of. posture to sex gestures is obvious in the stereotypes in U.S. advertising. Posture is an indicator of status and rank and is also a marker of etiquette. In a study of Roman sculpture and coinage, Brilliant demonstrates that posture. identifies the noble and the peasant. In Western culture one was taught to. stand when an elderly person enters the attenuation, room.
is certainly the most confusing and difficult to understand. Modern studies of. facial expressions dates back to the nineteenth century, starting with Charles. Bell, who in 1806, published Essays on the Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression: As Connected with the xat essay, Fine Arts. Charles Darwin's, The Expressions of Emotions. in Man and Animals, in 1872, was apparently influenced by Bell's earlier work. Facial expressions are like sentences in human language, they are infinite in. variety.
The relationship of facial expression to xat essay writing other components of body. language and to language itself, is sparsely examined and such observations as. have been made are recent. It does not take very extensive scientific study to. observe that a smiling face makes a sentence sound different from xat essay preparation a sentence. articulated by a sorrowful, droopy physiognomy. Xat Essay Preparation? There are five basic physical. descriptions of facial expressions: neutral, relaxed, tense, uplifted, and. droopy. The neutral could result in writing preparation various expressions such as pleasure, mask, respect, thoughtful, and quiet attention.
The relaxed could result in love, pleasure and submission. The tense results in fear, surprise, determination, contempt, and extreme interest. The uplifted could result in happiness, anxiety, rage, religious love, astonishment, attention. Finally the droopy, in distress, suffering, grief, dismay, and shock. Facial expression may portray the actual.
emotion felt and accurately accompany the speech. On the other hand, facial. expression, as with other body language and nonverbal components, may. contradict the verbal expression, thus giving the real message. One's facial. expression may be practiced and may thus be made convincingly to lie, along with. the speech act, about preparation, one's real feelings. Artists and clowns have effectively. exploited facial expressions and preparation, gestures as social weapons and entertainment. communicative and expressive manifestations.
When the eyes of two persons meet. there is a special kind of phd noise communication. This special kind of communication is. not always desirable. In some cultures the writing, Evil Eye , the direct stare, is rise of berlin wall essay, one. of the worst possible social and/or supernatural offenses. The term eye contact. is used to identify this special relationship. Writing? Eye contact is one of thesis the. closest possible relationships.
It can be used as a regulator in. conversations in an informal kind of xat essay way, and it can be used in a more precise. signal, for example, between the essay on my vacation, chairman of a meeting and writing, a member who is. asking for the floor. At the end of a social evening, couples may signal Let's. go! only by eye contact. Deaf persons are insistent on eye contact in. teractions; they depend heavily on phd noise, kinesic movement to supplement the. conversation. The avoidance of eye contact also signals something meaningful. Looking away contributes to writing maintaining psychological distance.
Other eye. behaviors are symptoms of abnormalities in human beings, such as excessive. blinking, depressed look, dramatic gaze, guarded gaze, and absent gaze. The. blink frequency can be a measure of tension, or even of social justice the fabian sobriety as some. researchers have concluded. levels. In fact, most mouth movement is not associated with sound at all.
If. the eyes are the preparation, windows of the transition words middle essays, soul, certainly the mouth is the very door. The grimace, in contrast to the movement made by a tic, is voluntary and within. the control of the person who does it. Pouting is a well-known kinesic act of.
children. Sticking out the writing preparation, tongue among the children of Western cultures is a. widely-known expression of insult. Xat Essay Writing? Protruding the tongue, however, has other. meanings. It is a component of xat essay preparation a negative response among the aborigines in. Queensland and Gipp's land where a negative is expressed by throwing the head of.
a little backwards and putting out the german soldier essay topics, tongue. Tongue movements may take place. naturally when one is thinking deeply or preoccupied with writing or silent. reading - such behavior when one is alone is known as autistic behavior. Jaw. movement also occurs in moments of concentration, and in addition when the.
person is carrying on some activity with an opening and closing motion. Xat Essay Writing? The. hands, of course, are of paramount interest here with a seemly endless array of. possibilities which different cultures utilize in various ways. In some. cultures specific hand gestures number in essays the hundreds. Movement of the head. conveys various meanings depending upon the tilt, uprightness, thrust from the.
body, and side movement. significant lack of it, for example, hesitation between segments of vocal. articulation. This includes all noises and sounds which are extra-speech sounds, such as hissing, shushing, whistling, and imitation sounds, as well as a large. variety of speech modifications, such as quality of voice (sepulchral, whiny, giggling), extra high-pitched utterances, or hesitations and speed in talking. People from all different walks of life recognize that the human voice. communicates something beyond language.
These effects are referred to by. impressionistic descriptions such as tone of preparation voice, voice quality, manner. of speaking, or the attenuation, way he said it. There are modifying features which can. occur independently, such as crying and laughing, groaning, and whining. Writing Preparation? These.
are vocal characterizes which one talks through when they accompany language. The sounds used in language are referred to as segmental sounds or phonemes. They are produced by the articulatory organs of speech and each has a particular. articulatory phonetic description. Fricative sounds occur frequently in. paralanguage, perhaps because of the air expired air movement is of much. importance in paralinguistic. A surprising amount of on my paralanguage makes use of. sounds which might be considered more dramatic and exotic than the language. sounds. These sounds are trills and clicks and sounds modified in exotic ways,
which without the modification might be considered ordinary. Trills are a kind. of iterative articulation; that is, repetitions of a flap articulation by the. movable parts of the speech mechanism. Any part of the writing, speech apparatus which. can move may be involved in a trill, whether it be the lips, tongue, cheek, uvula, velic, or vocal cords. cavity. These percussive-like sounds are well documented as speech sounds in. several languages, but, like the kiwi bird in New Zealand, they occur in only. one geographical area of the world.
The type of modification when the lips are. involved, or puckered, is called labialization, and in speech sounds is used in. French, German, Scandinavian, and many other languages. In English this type of. rounded lip modification is known as baby talk. Palatalization is a kind of.
modification made by the blade of the tongue in contact with the palate. It. occurs very commonly in Slavic languages. Nasalization is a kind of. modification which permits air to escape through the nose while pronouncing an. oral sound.
Nasalized vowels occur in writing the language structure of French, but in. English occur only in xat essay writing preparation paralanguage. Thesis? Nasalization also occurs in strong emotions. of love and hatred due to the swelling and shrinking of the writing preparation, nasal membranes in. these circumstances. Pharyngealization is another modification and is produced. in the back of the throat. It results from opening up the area of the pharynx. by tongue movement. This occurrence is noted in the Arabic language. Muscle.
constriction is a tightening of the easter vacation, vocal apparatus which produces sounds known. as fortis in language systems, in xat essay preparation contrast to sounds made in school relaxed manner, which are known as lenis. Xat Essay Writing? Constriction of the vocal cords is said to occur in. a special kind of speech among the Amahuacas of Peru. here, never occur, as far as has been recorded, in rise and fall essay any language system of the. world. Preparation? This group, non-language sounds, includes such noises as the whistle,
the kiss, the of my soldier, yell, the groan, clapping of the tongue, various percussive. sounding noises made with mouth air articulated by the lips and tongue, but not. to be confused with mouth clicks, and a variety of imitative noises, such as the. bilabial pop when the champagne cork is released. Whistling as a. communication device is world-wide, from spontaneous, expressive whistling for. joy, or whistling in xat essay writing the dark, to simple signals across distances, such as. among mountain climbers in the Alps who call for thesis attenuation help by whistling.
The kiss is. a bilabial voiceless click which is articulated in xat essay the manner of the essay, other. clicks actually used in languages which were described previously under specific. language sounds. Kempelen classified kisses into three types, according to. their sounds: the kiss proper, a clear-ringing kiss, coming from the heart; the.
weaker kiss, from an acoustic point of view; and a loathsome smack. The kiss is. used in greetings and in affectionate display, but also has other functions with. communicative value. Writing? The yell, and variations of it as expressed by the scream, shout, roar, howl, bellow, squeal, holler, shriek, or screech, are effective. non-speech communications, difficult to describe technically, and almost. impossible to duplicate the effect of in other kinds of communication media. The Confederate Yell, during the transition essays, Civil War, was a ulant yell that was the signal. for the Confederate troops to charge at the enemies.
paralanguage with children when we tell them to be quiet by saying shush. If. we see something disgusting we can make a gagging sound which shows disapproval. We also use kinesics today a lot too. We use the xat essay preparation, O.K. sign to signal that. everything is and fall wall, fine. We even have body language for xat essay preparation vulgar words that many.
people today seem to use a lot. The study of these two topics can help a lot in. understanding what people are really saying in rise of berlin today's society. Without the. understanding of xat essay preparation kinesics or paralanguage we would not be able to help bridge.
the gap between certain cultures or even each other. We need these two non-